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In addition to the six flags over Texas (Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, Confederate States of America and United Sates of America), three other flags have flown over Goliad, all flags of revolution.

The first of the extra flags is the solid green flag of the First Republic of Texas. During 1812 a group of filibusters lead by a Spaniard named Gutierrez and an American named Magee captured all of Texas from Spain and established the First Republic of Texas.

The second extra flag was flown here in 1821 by Dr. James Long who captured the Fort in an attempt to establish an independent country. The flag flown can be considered the second Republic of Texas. He was captured after a few days, taken a prisoner into Mexico, released and mysteriously shot.

The third flag was Capt. Phillip Dimmitt's Goliad Flag which flew here on December 20, 1835, the date of the signing of the First Texas Declaration of Independence.

Scroll down for more information about each flag.

Six Flags Over Texas
Click on any flag below to view an enlarged image.

  Flag of Spain   Flag Of Royal France   Flag Of Mexico   Flag Of Texas   Flag Of The Confederate States Of America   28 Star Flag Of The United States Of America  
Additional Three Flags Of Revolution Flown Over Precidio La Bahia
  Flag Of The First Republic Of Texas   Flag Of The Second Republic Of Texas   Dimmit's Flag in 1835  
First Republic of Texas
Second Republic of Texas
Dimmitt's Goliad Flag
Nine Flags Flown Over Presidio La Bahia In Chronological Order
Flag of Spain
Bourbon Cross of King Carlos III of Spain, 1519-1685, 1690-1821

Spain's claim on Texas might be said to have begun when Columbus made his discovery in 1492 and claimed the land as New Spain. This included the land later known as Texas. In 1519, Alonzo de Pinede, said to have been the first man to visit Texas, was commissioned to explore the Gulf coat from Florida to Vera Cruz. From this time to 1685 Spain continued its claim to Texas.

In 1690, Spain regained its claim after a short occupation by France and the Flag of Spain flew over Texas until 1821. This is referred to as the Mission Era. It was during this time that Goliad was an important Spanish colonial settlement.

Flag Of Royal France
Fleur-de-Lis of Royalist France, 1685-1690

La Salle landed on the Texas coast in 1685 and claimed the Texas territory for France. He established Fort St. Louis on the Gracitias Creek near the bay. Goliad can claim a special interest in this flag as this was the site later selected by the Spanish for their early mission and fort, which were moved to Victoria County and finally in 1749 to Goliad. A reminder of the original location has been kept for over two hundred years in the title, La Bahia (The Bay).

Flag Of The First Republic Of Texas
The Green flag of the Republican Army of the North, 1812-1813 (First Republic of Texas)

The Republican Army of the North declared Texas to be a republic, independent of Spain. The Magee-Gutierrez expedition, a part of this army, arrived at Goliad in November 1812. They found the fort abandoned so they took it. The Royalist Army of Spain surrounded the fort and until February 1813 the two conflicting groups occupied the area in and around La Bahia. Notable during this time was the battle of the "White Cow". In this, the Magee men were trying to capture a white cow for food and were engaged in a short battle with the Spanish forces. Spain finally gave up and left La Bahia for San Antonio in February 1813.

Flag Of The Second Republic Of Texas
Captain James Long's Flag. 1821 (Second Republic of Texas)

The James Long expedition carried a flag of red and white stripes with a field of red and a white star. The group occupied Goliad in October 1821 and held La Bahia for three days. On the fourth day they were captured by the Mexican army and sent to Mexico as prisoners.

Flag Of Mexico
Centralist Flag of the Republic of Mexico 1821-1836

Mexico, after being under the stronghold of the Spanish dictators who had ruled since Cortex, had struggled and gained her freedom from Spain in 1824. The Republic of Mexico's flag, consisting of three wide bars of green, white, and red with an eagle holding a snake in its mouth centered on the white bar, waved over most of Texas up to the Texas victory at San Jacinto. This was the flag flown at La Bahia during the this period. It remains today as the official flag of Mexico.

Dimmit's Flag in 1835
Captain Phillip Dimmitt's "First Flag of Texas Independence", 1835 (The Goliad Flag)

Several historians have given similar reports on the "Bloody arm flag of Goliad" said to have been made by Captain Phillip Dimmitt. On December 20 1835 the first declaration of Texas independence was signed at Goliad in the chapel of the Presidio by members of Dimmitt's command then stationed at La Bahia. After signing, the group went into the quadrangle and "amidst rapturous hurrahs, the flag of Texas Independence was hoisted and unfurled to the wintry wind".

The flag was described as being made of white domestic, two yards long and one yard wide. "In the center was a sinewy arm and hand, painted red, grasping a drawn sword of crimson." The flag pole was made from a tall sycamore tree found on the banks of the San Antonio River.

Most of the accounts on this flag ceremony quote as their source of information, the memoirs of John James and Nicholas Fagan.

The Dimmitt flag has now become the accepted flag of Goliad and is frequently displayed by business houses around the Goliad Square.

Flag Of Texas
Flag of the Republic of Texas, 1836-1845

Several designs were proposed but on January 25, 1839 the well known Lone Star of Texas was adopted by an act of Congress and approved by President Mirabeau Lamar to be the offical flag of the Republic of Texas. It was designed by Dr. Charles B. Stewart, who was the second signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence.

28 Star Flag Of The United States Of America
Flag of the United States of America, 1845-1861, 1865-Present
(28 Star flag flown after Texas joined the Union)

In 1845, the annexation of Texas to the United State was approved. The officals of the Republic of Texas retired and the officals of the State of Texas were installed. At the Texas Capitol on February 19, 1846, Ex-President Anson Jones ordered the Texas Republic Flag to be lowered and the Star Spangled Banner raised above it. President Jones said, "The final act in this drama is now performed. The Republic of Texas is no more.: Texas bacame the twenty-eighth state in "Old Glory".

Flag Of The Confederate States Of America
First National Flag of the Confederate States of America 1861-1865

In 1861 the State of Texas seceded from the United States to join the Confederacy and stayed with it until the end of the war in 1865. The "Stars and Bars" was the national flag of the Confederacy, as opposed to the popular Confederate Battle Flag.

Friends Of The Fort | P.O. Box 57 | Goliad, Texas 77963 | US Hwy 183 (77A)
Telephone: (361) 645-3752
Copyright: 2002 - Friends Of The Fort